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World History

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The history of the Cuban Missile Crisis

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Israeli settlements, explained | Settlements Part I

Why Israeli settlements don’t feel like a conflict zone | Settlements Part II

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How the Mona Lisa became so overrated

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The Bizarre Plan to Drain the Mediterranean: Atlantropa

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some good stuff here takki, will keep for my work trip to landan next week

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Class thread

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Need to go through my YouTube history and see what other stuff I've been watching lately.

This is also pretty amazing/mental...

Human Population Through Time

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fascinated at the moment with early human migration and the different species all leaving Africa.. incredible to think we all came from Adam & Eve and managed to populate the entire planet in just 6000yrs

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Jared Diamond's 'Guns, Germs and Steel' worth a read if you are into it

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that sounds right up my street, i'll bung it on the ole Amazon to read list

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Bung. A fine word that's been lost through generations.

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name of book RJ? old testament

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Where Was the Last Place Discovered on Earth?

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Great wee hangover thread this.

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Watched 'The Battle of Stalingrad' last weekend. Full of interviews with the Germans that fought in it. I pitied them by the end of it. People resorting to cannibalism, men going insane left and right.

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The Boring History Documentary Starter Pack

i.imgur.com/pAODmVe.png

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You could spend a lifetime watching and reading and learning about the Soviet Union the mighty beast. Stalingrad story is grim as fuck.

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Color footage of Berlin from 1945

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How America became a superpower

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Great thread this

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Einsatzgruppen: The Nazi Death Squads documentary series on Netflix is top notch. Watching it atm.

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That France is Bacon comment is brilliant.

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Don't be a sucker, documentary by the US war department

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Making my way through The First World War series atm,

Fascinating, sad and grim.

surreal as fuck there's been so much war and you realise this will never change

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Next up.. World War II in Colour

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Excuse the Daily Mail link, but this is actually a pretty great piece. I'll have to look out for the documentary - www.dailymail.co.uk/ne...

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m.facebook.com/story.p...

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Interesting post from /r/askhistorians today.

"Why is Liechtenstein?

Liechtenstein is 62 Mi^2 with a population of about 37,000. It's been under the imperial umbrella of several different empires for hundreds of years, but has always been able to maintain its' relative sovereignty. How did such a tiny nation not become totally absorbed and assimilated into the fold of a larger nation. I've read the Wiki articles and still haven't gotten the answer I'm looking for."

Answer:

I love Liechtenstein!

The short answer is three parts: **a late start**, **good alliances**, **not being a belligerent.**

**A Late Start**

First of all, you wouldn't consider Liechtenstein to be a "country" or even an "independent principality" by contemporary European standards until 1719. Before that, the area was barely occupied, and variously controlled to different degrees by the Holy Roman Empire, and was also traded around various dynasties and families for a couple of hundred years. That's why we don't think about Liechtenstein being captured in the Swabian War in 1499, or the Thirty Years' War from 1618-1648, for examples, because it wasn't Liechtenstein then. It was a couple of little hamlets and a castle or two. It doesn't even get a mention in the Wikipedia articles on those conflicts.

Compare this with Vatican City---which was either trying to control the rest of the peninsula or the whole world since about the 8th century, being controlled by the locals, or getting booted out to France---or compare with Malta, which has been occupied for 7,000 years and conquered by every one with a boat from the Romans to the Muslims to the Normans to the French. Plus the British got Malta for a signature in the Treaty of Paris. So yeah, a late start is reason number one.

**Good Alliances**

Things are pretty quiet in Liechtenstein during from 1719 onward until Napoleon starts conquering much of Europe. Most notably for our story his victories at Ulm and Austerlitz in 1805 lead to the Treaty of Pressburg (aka Bratislava), which pretty much shatters Liechtenstein's hope of maintaining their Austrian friends. Within a few months Napoleon is building the Confederation of the Rhine. This is an agreement among a bunch of conquered/nervous German princes to provide taxes and troops for Napoleon's future conquests. But in order to get the princes to sign up, a process called *German mediatization* was conducted in which various states were merged and properties handed over. In short, "Ok, I'll join your confederation, but only if you declare my neighbor's house to be part of my house and you give me all my stuff."

Maximilian I of Bavaria wanted to mediatize Liechtenstein as part of his deal to sign up for the Confederation, but Napoleon refused. The reason was because Johann von Liechtenstein---who was part of the negotiations back at the Treaty of Pressburg---really impressed Napoleon. So, Lichtenstein got be a co-founder of the Confederation and maintain their sovereignty.

The Confederation collapsed within a decade because Napoleon stopped winning all the time. And technically the French occupied the country for a minute there, but again because Johann and Napoleon were buddies it still operated pretty independently.

Next up, Lichtenstein joins the new German Confederation until that starts to fall apart in the 1860s. The country gets a new constitution with some representative democracy, and officially declares itself permanently neutral.

So what about the 20th century? The Austrian ties do create problems during World War I, and the Allies impose an embargo. Lichtenstein forms a monetary alliance with the ever-neutral Swiss to stay afloat. After the war, they sign a treaty with the Swiss to let them handle tons of their diplomatic needs elsewhere.

In World War II, Liechtenstein's alliances also come in handy. They remain neutral, even when the dynasty's hereditary lands over in central Europe get claimed by Czechoslovakia and Poland as they are reclaiming territory from the retreating German army. Liechtenstein also gave asylum to about five hundred German-allied Russian soldiers in 1945. They got them permanently resettled in South America. For a country that was struggling to feed its own, this was considered a great sacrifice. Other German-allied Russian soldiers that were granted asylum elsewhere in the world were repatriated to the USSR, and often executed.

No neutral country in World War II got consumed into a larger country, but Liechtenstein wasn't even able to join the UN. That's because there was a fear that the Soviet Union would pressure small states to leverage their votes. This may have further helped secure their identity as an independent actor for the rest of the 20th century.

**Not Being a Belligerent.**

You asked "how did such a tiny nation not become totally absorbed and assimilated into the fold of a larger nation?" The answer is that it basically did. Geopolitically, Lichtenstein is pretty much Switzerland. Culturally, it's pretty much Austria. Most of the Lichtenstein's history it avoided being consumed by another Germanic state by participating in confederations. Then it declared itself neutral, and managed to maintain that into the 20th century.

Other modern micronations or would-be micronations have tended to get involved or traded about in conflicts. Andorra fought with the Moors, got passed around among various French, Catalan, and religious rulers, declared war on Germany in World War I, and got occupied by the French following unrest in their 1933 elections. In the Low Countries, only one of the Seventeen Provinces (Luxembourg) survives as its own country today. The rest variously split off to form the Dutch Republic, were divided up by feuding families, or became part of the kickoff for the Eighty Year's War. Most of the US Territories (American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, the US Virigin Islands, Wake Island, etc.) were the results of conquests or land swaps or just purchases for the strategic military advantage.

**The TL;DR Summary**

Lichtenstein avoided becoming the name of a province in Austria because they got a late start being defined as a country by that name, because Johann I impressed Napoleon, because the confederations they joined held up long enough to keep them from getting conquered, and because they decided to stop picking sides well before the start of the 20th century.

P.S. I'm tempted to rewrite this entire post in a James Burke style "Because Johann was a smooth operator" but you'll just have to imagine that.

--------------------------------

Sources:

Secrets of the Seven Smallest States of Europe: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City, by Thomas M. Eccardt

Metternich's German Policy, Volume II: The Congress of Vienna, 1814-1815, by Krahe, E.E.

Heart of Europe: A History of the Holy Roman Empire, by Peter H. Wilson

Mediatization in Germany www.heraldica.org/topi...

The Prince of Liechtenstein on leadership www.ft.com/content/191...

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Britannia Rules The Waves

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ordered this

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That'll be a cracker I'd sat. Watched a documentary with interviews with men from the 6th. I came away feeling sorry for them.

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*say

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Roger Moorhouse retweeted it. He knows his biscuits. For a Tory.

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Seen a show the other night about ww1. One of the fronts was the Italians fighting the Austrians up the fucking Alps for 2 years. Vertical warfare up a fucking snow mountain like. And they say the world's mad these days ffs.

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exactly. History is just a self-repeating prophecy. If you know history you know your opponents next move. Why Putin is making a dick of the West. because he isn't even smart but he reads books and so can play the West for the tool it's become since diabetes was inflictedupon it by the West.

what would We give for a herr Kissinger again. and history tells you we are due one.

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by the REDS

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watch this motherfucker, and weep that everything you've been told by clowns like me and my school kin-teachers, is bullshit

No offense to doctor Pavlov the earthquake genius. when we've sorted out politik out again I'll be right back on top of his work.

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Prof Neil Ferguson

Immense
Trust me. You'll love longer.

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come on. read, motherfucker.

Find out what's going on in your World. by cross-referencing and fact.

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"mossad did 9/11"

"Bush did 9/11"

NO NO NO.

read. Find out publishers. Cross referenced statute authors.

This isn't difficult

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Top Ten Facts 2016

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Couple of good YouTube channels explaining historical battles and various countries history.

BazBattles - www.youtube.com/channe...

Suibhne - www.youtube.com/channe...

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